Information technology (IT) managers in both enterprise and cloud environments are looking to nonvolatile memory express (NVMe) to drive needed storage performance as they add new types of real-time applications and grow their businesses. Significant experimentation with local peripheral component interconnect express (PCIe) and NVMe-based solid state disks (SSDs) over the past two years has driven organizations that need this type of performance at scale toward what IDC is calling NVMe-based all-flash arrays (NAFAs). These solutions can provide the same type of storage latencies as local SSDs but offer the advantages of enterprise arrays: easy scalability to much higher capacities, the ability to share access to high-performance storage across their entire IT infrastructure, and access to enterprise-class data services not available in most local storage configurations (RAID, snapshots, replication, etc.). The first NAFAs shipped in 2016, but the market is expected to grow rapidly, cannibalizing significant revenue from the current all-flash array (AFA) market. IDC expects that, by 2021, NAFA shipments will be dominating primary external AFA revenue. Users largely agree — 78.1% of surveyed users of NVMe technology today think that SCSI will transition to NVMe for primary storage, and 74.8% of those users believe that NVMe will be driving more than 50% of primary external AFA revenue by 2021.